We live our everyday lives not knowing anything about the universe. Not knowing the possibilities of the future. There are very few people who understand these types of theories. This is due to the complexity of the universe. There is an endless chasm that is filled with the things we don’t know of the universe. String theory tries to close this chasm, to explain all of the unknowns. It uses the 10 dimensions, Einstein’s equations, and so much more to put together the fundamental story of the universe. The picture above is the Calabi-Yau surface, a multidimensional surface brought into the 3rd dimension. In this lesson, we will give you an introduction to this theory.
The 10 Dimensions
The 10 dimensions are the ultimate components of existence. They are what keeps the universe in a stable order. But for 3-Dimensional figures like us, it is almost impossible to understand. To understand string theory, you have to understand and accept the existence of the 10 dimensions. There are 9 regular dimensions and 1 time dimension.
The first dimension is a line. It is made from 2 points. Those points have no true dimensions, they just indicate a position. When we add a second point and connect the 2, we get the first dimension. This is easy for us to understand because we see it in our daily lives. If you were to draw a line, it would have a light width (the width of your pencil lead). In the true first dimension, there is no width at all. It is smaller than an atom, invisible to the naked eye. The true width is the size of an infinitesimal.
The second dimension is an extension to the 1st. Any polygon is 2-Dimensional. It has length, width, but no depth. When I say no depth, I mean that is smaller than an atom. It is an infinitesimal. An infinitesimal is incomprehensibly thin. If you were a person living in the 2nd dimension, you would not have any sort of organs because they would cut holes in your body. If a 3-Dimensional object were to pass through this dimension. It would loot look like a line. This is because they can’t see into the 3rd dimension, just like we can’t see into the 4th dimension.
The 3rd dimension is the easiest to imagine. We live our daily lives in it. It is the addition of depth. This is not a good way to think of it though. To help us imagine the dimensions that are to come, we should instead imagine the 3rd dimension as a fold that goes through the third dimension to make a shortcut for the 2nd dimension. If there was a 2-dimensional figure walking on a paper, you could fold the paper so that it could walk across the fold. This way, the 2-D figure is riding a wormhole. The figure would not notice the fold. It would walk over as if the fold was never there. That will help give us an explanation for the later dimension.
The fourth dimension is also a line. But instead of an infinitesimal, each point is a specific point in time. Just like the 2-D figure on a folded paper, we do not notice our travels throughout the fourth dimension. Similar to the 2-D figure trying to view a 3-D figure, we only see a small part of the fourth dimension at a time. We are going in are strolling forward, looking at a type of museum. At one end, our embryonic self, at the other, our dead body.
The fifth dimension is all possible future outcomes. If you were to look ahead in the fifth dimension, you would see many different versions of your future self. It is your duty as a 3-D figure to decide which future self to choose. Your daily choices affect your future you. This is what the many worlds theory is about. All possible outcomes exist. You just unknowingly choose which world you want. This also what Schrödinger’s cat is about. The cat is both alive and dead at the same exact time, but when you open the box, one option collapses in on you.
The sixth dimension is a wormhole connecting two points on the fifth dimension. You are folding into the sixth dimension and choosing what existence you want. You can go to any point on the 5th dimension and live there. You could move to the point where America lost the Revolutionary War. You could go to any possible outcome in this universe.
The 7th dimension is a line. One point on the seventh dimension is every single possible outcome in our universe. Anything that obeys the laws of our universe is in that point. In the other point, there is another series of all possible outcomes, but for a different universe. A universe where the laws of physics are different. Where anything is different. And then the point contains all possible outcomes that obey that universe’s laws.
The eight dimension is all possible universe. With all possible laws. Every possible thing in existence is in the eight dimensions. There is an infinite number of different universes that have completely different ways of functioning. They have different laws, different sizes, and everything you could possibly imagine is possible there
The ninth dimension is a fold. It is where you fold through the ninth dimensions to choose any point that you want to be on in the 8th dimension. You can be anywhere in existence in the ninth dimension. This is where string theory comes into play. String theory says that all of these universes exist, and to escape the death of this universe, we need to find another universe. This is one of the most important parts of string theory.
The tenth dimension is a point. It is where you take all lower dimensions, and you make them into a point. This is thought of as the dimension without time. That is because when every single possible thing in existence is in one place. The time becomes irrelevant. It is all there at the same time. It all exists together.
To wrap it up, string theory tries to explain the universe. With string theory, humanity could avoid the death of the universe, and we could thrive somewhere else. It could be our saving grace. Part of string theory is the belief in the 10 dimensions. With all of this together, humanity could have no limits.